Is an important economic sector in Indonesia. In 2009, tourism ranks third in terms of foreign exchange earnings after oil, and gas and palm oil. Based on 2010 data, the number of foreign tourists coming to Indonesia amounted to 7 million or grew by 10.74% compared to the previous year, and contributed income for the country amounted to 7603.45 million US dollars.
Natural and cultural resources is an important component of tourism in Indonesia. Alam Indonesia has a tropical climate combination, 17,508 were 6,000 of which are not inhabited, and the third longest coastline in the world after Canada and the European Union. Indonesia is also the largest and most populous island in the world. Beaches in Bali, where diving in Bunaken, Mount Rinjani in Lombok, and various national parks in Sumatra is an example of natural tourist destination in Indonesia. Tourist attractions that are supported by a rich cultural heritage that reflects the ethnic diversity of Indonesian history and dynamic with 719 local languages are spoken throughout the islands. Prambanan and Borobudur, Toraja, Yogyakarta, Minangkabau, and Bali is an example of cultural tourism destination in Indonesia. Until 2010, there were seven locations in Indonesia, which has been designated by UNESCO on the list of World Heritage Sites. Meanwhile, four other representatives also set out in the UNESCO Representative List of Cultural Heritage objects Humans are not puppets, keris, batik and angklung.
Based on data from the Central Bureau of Statistics, the eleven provinces of the most frequented by tourists is Bali, West Java, Central Java, East Java, Jakarta, North Sumatra, Lampung, South Sulawesi, South Sumatra, Banten and West Sumatra. Approximately 59% of tourists visiting Indonesia for a holiday destination, while 38% for business purposes. Singapore and Malaysia are the two countries with the highest record number of tourists coming to Indonesia from ASEAN.Sementara regions of Asia (excluding ASEAN) Japanese tourists in first place followed by China, South Korea, Taiwan and India. Highest number of immigrants from Europe come from countries Great Britain, followed by France, the Netherlands and Germany.
Management of tourism, national policy, government affairs in the field of culture and tourism in Indonesia is regulated by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Indonesia.
Field services related to tourism may have evolved since the time of ancient Indonesia, especially Java ancient 8th century; some panels in Borobudur reliefs depicting scenes vending, sort of shop, shop, or restaurant, and there are buildings in which there is no middle man drinking and having fun, maybe describe drink or lodging house. Indonesia has a history of tourism culture since centuries since the 14th century. Nagarakretagama noted that King Hayam Wuruk have surround which has become the kingdom of Majapahit in East Java region using a cart with a convoy of state officials. Note Bujangga Manik, a Hindu rover receipt of Pakuan Pajajaran written in the 15th century tells his journey around the island of Java and Bali. Although the journey is a pilgrimage, but sometimes he spent time as a modern-day travelers: sit, fanning her and enjoy the scenery in the Peak area, especially Mount Gede which he described as the highest point of the area Pakuan.
After entry of the Dutch to Indonesia in the early 19th century, the Dutch East Indies area began to develop an attraction for migrants coming from the Netherlands. Governor-general at that time decided formation tourist bureau called Vereeeging Toeristen Verkeer the office building is also used for airline Royal Netherlands Indies Luchtfahrt Nederlansch Maatschapijj (now called KLM). Hotels began to appear as the Hotel des Indes in Batavia, Oranje Hotel in Surabaya and Medan Hotel De Boer. 1913, Vereeneging Touristen Verkeermembuat guidebook about tourist attractions in Indonesia. Since then, Bali began to be known by foreign tourists and the number of foreign tourist arrivals increased by more than 100% in 1927. On July 1, 1947, the Indonesian government tried to turn the Indonesian tourism sector by forming entities called HONET (National Hotel & Tourism), chaired by R. Tjitpo Ruslan. The agency immediately took over the hotel – hotel located in the area around Java and all named Hotel Merdeka. After the Round Table, the agency was renamed NV HORNET. 1952 in accordance with the decision of the president of Indonesia, established interdepartmental committee in charge of Tourism Affairs exploring the possibility of reopening Indonesia as a tourist destination.
Mascot Visit Indonesia Year 1992.
During the New Order, the number of foreign tourists visiting Indonesia grew slowly. The Government has conducted a program to increase the number of foreign tourist arrivals to Indonesia, which is called the Visit Indonesia Year. This program increases the international tourist arrivals to 400,000 people. Additionally in 1992, the government launched the Decade visit Indonesia, the annual theme of tourism until 2000.
International trust in Indonesia’s tourism began to decline in the 2002 Bali bombing incident which led to a decrease in tourists who come to Bali by 32%. Other terrorist acts such as the JW Marriott bombing, 2003, bombing of the Australian Embassy, 2005 Bali bombings and the 2009 Jakarta bombings also affect the number of arrivals of foreign tourists to Indonesia. Acts of terrorism in Indonesia has resulted in the issuance of travel warnings by some countries such as Australia and the United Kingdom in 2006.
In 2008, the Indonesian government held Visit Indonesia Year 2008 program to increase the number of domestic tourists and foreign tourists to Indonesia, besides this program to commemorate 100 years of national awakening Indonesia. Funds spent on this program amounted to 15 million US dollars are mostly used for advertising programs within and outside the country. The results of this program is to increase the number of foreign tourists reached 6.2 million compared to the previous year at 5.5 million tourists.
In an effort to increase the number of tourists to Indonesia, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Indonesia to continue the program “Visit Indonesia Year” in 2009 with a target of 6.4 million tourists and foreign exchange earnings of 6.4 billion US dollars, while the movement of tourists targeted 229, 95 million trips with a total expenditure of more than 128.77 trillion. The program is focused on “meetings, incentives, conventions and performances as well as tours of the sea”. In 2010, the Indonesian government launched back “Visit Indonesia Year and Visit Museum Year 2010”. The program is done to encourage public awareness of the museum and increase the number of visitors to the museum. In 2011, the Indonesian government set a Wonderful Indonesia as a new brand management of tourism in Indonesia, while for tourism theme chosen “Eco, Culture, and MICE”. Tourism logo still use the logo “Visit Indonesia Year” used since 2008.
Indonesia has the richest coral reefs in the world with more than 18% of the world’s coral reefs, and more than 3,000 species of fish, 590 types of coral, 2,500 species of molluscs, and 1,500 species of crustaceans. Wealth of marine life, creating approximately 600 point dive spread from Sabang to Merauke. Raja Ampat in West Papua is the largest marine park in Indonesia, which has a wide variety of marine life and is known as a good location for scuba diving has visibility up to 30 meters in the afternoon. International Conservation institute research results in 2001 and 2002 found at least 1,300 species of fish, 600 species of coral and 700 species of shellfish in the area of Raja Ampat. Park which is located in North Sulawesi has a 25 point dive to depths of up to 1,556 meters. Nearly 70% of fish species in the Western Pacific can be found in this National Park. Coral reefs in this national park called seven times more variable than Hawaii. Some other well-known locations for diving include: Wakatobi, Nusa Penida, Publications, Derawan and the Kepulauan Seribu (Thousand Islands).
Kelimutu National Park.
There are 50 national parks in Indonesia, 6 of which are included in the UNESCO World Heritage Site. Lorentz National Park in Papua has about 42 species of mammals, mostly endangered animals. Mammals in the region, among others: the tree kangaroo, hedgehog Irian, water rats, wallabies, and possum. This national park has more than 1,000 species of fish, among them the fish koloso. In this park there is eternal snow that was on the top of Mount Jayawijaya. Ujung Kulon National Park is the oldest national park in Indonesia, known as the one-horned Javan hewanBadak dwindling population. Observation of endemic species of dragons and other animals such as deer, wild boar and birds can be done in the Park. Kelimutu National Park located in Flores has a crater lake with three different colors.
Ngarai Sianok (Sianok canyon) in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra.
Indonesia has more than 400 volcanoes and 130 of them, including active volcanoes. Mount Bromo in East Java Province is known as a tourist destination mountain to see the sunrise and horsemen. In certain months, there is a cultural ceremony Yadnya Kasada conducted by the community of Mount Bromo. Another famous tourist locations in West Java is Tangkuban Perahu located in Subang. This active volcano produces hot springs located at the foot of the mountain known as Ciater and is often used for spa treatments and therapies.
Diversity of flora and fauna throughout the Indonesian archipelago made suitable for the development of agro-tourism. [Needs citation needed] Bogor Botanical Gardens are located in Bogor is a popular ecotourism sites that have stood since the 19th century and is the oldest in Asia with the most comprehensive collection of tropical plants in the world . Until March 2010, the Garden has a collection of 3,397 species common type of collection, 550 species of orchids, as well as 350 non-orchid plants that are in the greenhouse. Mekarsari a tropical fruit garden largest and most comprehensive in the world. This park collection of 100,000 fruit trees consisting of 78 families, 400 species, and 1,438 varieties.
Tourism spending in Indonesia is divided into two types: traditional shopping centers with bargaining process between buyers and sellers and modern shopping centers. Traditional markets generally sell goods of daily needs are located in a single building or a particular way. Some areas with relief rivers have long floating markets such as Muara Kuin Floating Market in Barito, Banjarmasin and Lok Baintan Floating Market in Banjar, but those that are specialized in selling goods – goods or objects of art local specialties such as Pasar Sukawati, Gianyar which sells a variety of crafts and goods Balinese art, Solo Klewer Market that sells fabric – batik, Kota Gede with silver handicrafts, and Malioboro Yogyakarta Yogyakarta selling handicrafts.
Modern shopping centers can be found in metropolitan cities, especially on the island of Java, such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung and Semarang. Most modern shopping centers can be found in the city that has more than 170 shopping centers. Jakarta is a city with a number of shopping centers in the world. The oldest shopping center ever built in Jakarta, RecentMost Market was built in 1820. The shopping center in Jakarta, Semarang and Surabaya generally hold great discounts during the birthday of the city to increase the attractiveness of shopping. Jakarta routinely throw a party discount Jakarta Great Sale Festival, Semarang Semarang Great Sale names, while Surabaya Surabaya Shopping Festival held.
Based on data from the 2010 census, Indonesia consists of 1,128 tribes. The resulting diversity of ethnic diversity of cultural products such as dances, musical instruments, and customs in Indonesia. Some dance performances internationally renowned for example Ramayana which tells the story of Rama and staged at Prambanan temple complex. Tourism Batubulan village located in Sukawati, Gianyar is a village frequented for dance performances Barongan, Kecak and Legong.
In recent years several cities in Java began to develop the concept of carnival fahshion. Jember Fashion Carnaval regularly held since 2001 in Jember, East Java. Other fashion carnival theme but focus on batik Solo Batik Carnival which was first held in 2008. In addition to the carnival fashion, unisex carnival held to commemorate the anniversary of the city as it is held in the city of Yogyakarta with the name Jogja Java Carnival and in the city with the name Jak Carnival held regularly every June.
Indonesian cultural history from prehistoric times until the period of independence can be found throughout the museum in Indonesia. Total number of museums in Indonesia amounted to 80 museums from Aceh to the Moluccas. A number of museums are located in the region, such as the old city, which has six museums is an area that is known as a center of trade in the Age of Batavia and Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, which became a recreation center with the highest number of parks and museums in the region in Indonesia.
History records that the Hindu and Buddhist religions ever enter and affect the spiritual life in Indonesia with the historical relics such as temples and inscriptions in several locations. Traces of the greatest Buddhist relics are located Borobudur temple in Magelang and is the largest Buddhist temple in the world and in the list of UNESCO World Cultural Heritage in 1991. In the 13th century until the 16th of Islam into the archipelago replace royal era Hindu-Buddhist. At this time, many found the mosque which is the cultural acculturation between Javanese Hindu-Buddhist-Islamic religion as seen in the Great Mosque of Demak and Menara Kudus Mosque.
Each major island in Indonesia at least one international airport. Largest airport is Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, located in Tangerang, Banten. Five other international airports are located in Java is Adisumarmo in Solo, Surabaya Juanda, Husein Sastranegara, in Bandung and Yogyakarta Adisucipto. Ground transportation such as trains and taxis are available in almost all islands in Indonesia. Some cities provide transportation systems such as TransJakarta Bus Rapid Transit in Jakarta, Trans Jogja Yogyakarta, Trans Metro Bandung in Bandung, Batik Solo Trans in Surakarta, and TransSemarang in Semarang. Typical vehicles such as three-wheeler, tricycles, and minibus is available in certain cities, in addition to the informal public transport like OJEG can be found in major cities such as Jakarta, Bandung and Surabaya.
Lodging facilities continue to be developed. According to 2008 data, there were 1,169 hotel rooms and 174 321 112 079 beds in Indonesia. In addition to the growing number of hotels, as an effort to increase foreign tourist arrivals through MICE government set up 10 city known as a MICE destination, namely Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Surabaya, Bali, Balikpapan, Medan, Batam-Bintan, Padang-Bukittinggi, Makassar and Manado. Some locations MICE in Indonesia has successfully held important events such as the ASEAN Summit held at the Jakarta Convention Center in May 2011, the World Ocean Conference in Manado in 2009 at the Grand Kawanua Hall and the UNFCCC in Bali International Convention Center in Bali in 2007 .
On February 1, 2004, Indonesia launched a visa policy tightening regulation. Although the tourist visa is free and valid for 60 days, tourists from various countries are now required to buy one of two Visa On Arrival (VOA): US $ 15 which is valid for 10 days or $ 25 for 30 days. Countries – countries that are included in this strict policy include: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, South Africa, Switzerland, Taiwan, United Arab Emirates, the United States and Great Britain. On July 14, 2004, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Indonesia add to the list of countries to VOA including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, Russia, Egypt, Austria, Ireland, Qatar and Luxembourg.